Notes

  • Meristem: A region of actively dividing cells that form specialized cells.
  • Shoots can arise from both axillary and terminal buds.
    • Axillary/lateral bud: Located between a leaf and stem.
    • Apical/terminal bud: Located at the end of a stem. Dichotomous branching occurs if a terminal bud forms into two stems.
    • Adventitious bud: A bud that forms from meristem not created by the apical meristem, usually because of damage to the tree.
    • Epicormic bud: A dormant bud located beneath the bark of a stem.
  • Nodes: Regions where leaves and buds appear.
  • Internodes: Regions between nodes. Length is dependent on the plant type and environmental conditions.
  • Leaves/buds can spiral along stems depending on the plant type.
  • Leaf/bud arrangements:
    • Alternate: One per node.
    • Opposite: Two per node.
    • Whorled: Three or more per node.
  • Auxin is produced in the apical bud and suppresses the growth of lateral branches. More auxin makes a plant more apical dominant.
  • Monopodial growth: The terminal bud remains intact and the stem remains the central leader.
  • Sympodial growth: A lateral bud takes over the terminal bud and produces a new central leader.

Plan

  • Each stem has a flare and cap component.
  • Stem density: The number of shoots from axillary buds. Adventitious buds can also be considered if all possible locations are determined first.
  • Preserve existing stems when changing the stem density.
  • Adventitious shoots only appear under specified stresses.
  • Internode lengths may remain constant (creating or removing stems) or change (preserving existing stems) when the length of a stem is changed.